AIRCRAFT EXHIBITS: Continued...
1935: BUCKER JUNGMANN: Carl Clemens Bucker formed the Bucker Flugzeugbau in 1932 and the companies first aircraft was a Bu 131 Jungmann (young man). The aircraft was intended for sporting, aerobatic and training use and the first prototype flew in 1934. The Luftwaffe started using the Jungmann as a primary trainer in 1935 and the type continued to be used as a trainer throughout World War 2, some aircraft were pressed into night ground attack duties from 1942 onward. The aircraft is designated as a two seat trainer biplane, powered by a 150hp Tigre G IV BE in-line four cylinder engine, with a maximum speed of 115mph and a cruising speed of 106mph.
1935: FIESELER FI-156A-1 STORCH: Designed in 1935 for German Military use as a reconnaissance, liaison and casualty transport aircraft, the Storch incorporated wings with leading edge slats, flaps and drooping ailerons which offered a very low stall speed and excellent STOL capabilities. The wing arrangement was less than ideal with regard to fuel usage. The most famous STOL Storch rescue was that of deposed Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini from a 9,000ft high mountain-top prison in the Gran Sasso Massif in Italy, the airfield was a tiny rock-strewn ledge. The aircraft is designated as a multi seat reconnaissance high wing monoplane, powered by a 240hp Argus As 10C-3 engine, with a maximum speed of 109mph and a cruising speed of 93mph.
1935: GLOSTER GLADIATOR: The Gladiator evolved from the Gloster SS37, numerous engine types were assessed and an enclosed cockpit developed, ultimately 737 Gladiators were manufactured, including 98 Sea Gladiators. The Gladiator was the last of a long line of biplane fighters to serve in the RAF, ultimately being replaced by the Hawker Hurricane. The aircraft is designated as a two seat day fighter biplane, powered by a 840hp Bristol Mercury 30, nine cylinder radial engine, with a maximum speed of 257mph at 14,600 feet. Armament consisted of four forward firing .303 machine guns.
1937: HAWKER DEMON: The only airworthy Hawker Demon in the world. Evolved from the Hart Fighter, the Demon was sadly flawed as a fighter, initial trials against the then current RAF front line fighter, the Bristol Bulldog were promising. Incredibly it was replaced on the eve of World War 2 by the Boulton and Paul Defiant, an equally disappointing aircraft. The aircraft is designated as a two seat Interceptor Fighter biplane, powered by a 640hp Rolls Royce Kestrel V12 engine, with a maximum speed of 182mph. Armament consisted of two forward firing synchronised Vickers MkIII machine guns and one Lewis gun at the rear.
1937: CHILTON DW.1: Utilizing a modified Ford 10 car engine, the Chilton incorporated a lightweight airframe and aerodynamic cowling which allowed the aircraft to exceed 100mph. Various aircraft were built and many participated in air races, a Chilton placed third in the 1938 Tynwald Race over the Isle of Man. The aircraft is designated as a single seat tourer/racer monoplane, powered by a 32hp water cooled Carden Ford engine, with a maximum speed of 112mph.
1937: MILES M14A MAGISTER: The Magister was developed from the civil Hawk series of low wing monoplanes to satisfy a need by the RAF for a then modern elementary trainer. The Magister superseded the Avro Tutor Trainers, in the period 1937~1941 a total of 1,229 Magister's were delivered to the RAF. A number of Magister's saw service with the British Army and Fleet Air Arm. The aircraft is designated as a two seat low wing elementary trainer with aerobatic capability monoplane. The engine was a 30hp de Havilland Gypsy Major1 in-line four cylinder engine, with a maximum speed of 145mph and a service ceiling of 18,000 feet.
1938: WESTLAND LYSANDER: The Lysander was built by Westland Aircraft to an Air Ministry specification for an Army Observation and Reconnaissance role, additional criteria included support of ground forces and operation from unprepared landing grounds. Incorporating leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps the Lysander had a short take off and landing STOL capability. The Lysander entered service with the RAF in 1938 and can claim to be the first RAF aircraft based in France to see wartime action however it was withdrawn from service following the 1940 evacuation of Dunkirk. Subsequent uses for the aircraft were night flying operations, including taking agents and equipment into occupied Europe, and a variety of roles in North Africa, Burma and India.
The aircraft is designated as a two seat high wing monoplane, although space was available to carry two additional passengers. The engine was a 870hp Bristol Mercury XX, nine cylinder radial engine, with a maximum speed of 210mph at 5,000 feet. Armament consisted of four .303 machine guns, two fixed forward firing and two in the rear cockpit.
1941: SEA HURRICANE 1b: The vast majority of Sea Hurricanes were conversions from conventional airframes, modifications included local strengthening to counter the impact of catapult and arrestor hook loads. The first Sea Hurricanes were used on Royal Navy Catapult Ships and Catapult Aircraft Merchant ships. Major wartime involvement with the Fleet Air Arm included the August 1942 Malta Convoy Operation Pedestal. Roughly 700 Sea Hurricanes were produced, either through the more popular conversions or new builds. The aircraft is designated as a single seat naval fighter monoplane, powered by a 1,030hp Rolls Royce Merlin III V12 engine, with a maximum speed of 296mph at 16,300 feet. Armament consisted of eight .303 Browning machine guns.
1941: RYAN ST-3KR (PT-22): The United States began a massive expansion of it's Army and Naval Air Forces in the 1930's and Ryan was one of the companies chosen to provide a standard trainer aircraft. Various engine types were tested and following the outbreak of the Second World War a standardized Army-Navy trainer aircraft programme coincided with Ryan's introduction of a variant powered by a Kinner Radial (KR) engine, this aircraft became the PT-22 Recruit. The aircraft is designated as a two seat primary trainer monoplane, powered by a 160hp Kinner R65 radial engine, with a maximum speed of 190mph.
1944: POLIKARPOV Po-2 'CORN CUTTER': Designed to establish a single Soviet type Trainer the Po-2 nevertheless saw duty as anything but a Trainer, the prototype which appeared in 1927 was a crop duster, subsequent uses included floatplanes, cabin versions seating up to seven persons, ambulances with optional stretcher accommodation in pods on each lower wing and at least one luxury cabin version with exhaust heating and wicker chairs! There was even a prone position pilot version to test the viability of an interceptor fighter in 1939.
Versions of the Po-2 saw action in World War 2, including training, liaison, ambulance and night fighter roles, subsequent to the war surviving aircraft were used as a Soviet Jack of all Trades aircraft, approximately 33,000 Po-2's were built and production ceased in 1959, a massive life span for any aircraft. The aircraft is designated as an all wood two seat biplane, powered by a 115hp Shvetsov M-11D, five cylinder radial engine, with a maximum speed of 93mph.
1944: MESSERSCHMITT ME163B-1a 'KOMET': Arguably the most dramatic and technologically advanced aircraft to emerge from World War 2, the Komet evolved from a tailless research glider which was modified to accommodate a rocket motor. The rocket motors were fuelled by two highly corrosive chemical agents, specifically T STOFF: 80% hydrogen peroxide with 20% oxyquinoline or phosphate as a stabilizer and C STOFF: hydrazine hydrate, methyl alcohol and water. Combining T STOFF and C STOFF produced static thrust figures between 3,300 and 3,748lb.
The first Komet Fighter Group was formed in 1944 and the first Luftwaffe Defence Operation was undertaken on the 16th August 1944 against USAAF B17 Fortress's without success. Ultimately 237 Komets were manufactured, however their success was marginal despite the calibre of pilots involved, only nine allied losses and two probables were recorded. The Luftwaffe Komet Pilots and Ground Crew suffered significant loss of life and injury due to the volatile nature of the rocket fuel during maintenance and taxiing duties. The aircraft is designated as a single seat tailless point interceptor fighter monoplane, powered by a Walter HWK 109-509a bi-fuel rocket motor producing 3,748lb thrust with a flight duration at maximum power of only eight minutes. The maximum speed was 515mph at sea level and 596mph at 9,840ft with a ceiling limit of 52,500ft. Armament was limited to two 30mm MK 108 cannons.
1949: DE HAVILLAND CHIPMUNK T. Mk 10: The Chipmunk was designed to supersede the de Havilland Tiger Moth. Flown in prototype form in 1946, the aircraft demonstrated excellent handling qualities but suffered from poor spin recovery, this was overcome by the addition of fuselage strakes to the tail assembly which offered the additional advantage of improved aerobatic capabilities. A total of 735 of the 1,014 Chipmunks manufactured in the UK were for the RAF with others used by the Royal Navy and the Army Air Corps. The aircraft is designated as a two seat elementary trainer low wing monoplane, powered by a 145hp DH Gipsy Major 8, four cylinder in-line engine, with a maximum speed of 138mph at sea level.
1950: HUNTING 'PERCIVAL' PROVOST T Mk 1: Designed by Percival Aircraft in 1950, the Provost was developed to replace the unsuccessful Percival Prentice used by the RAF as a trainer. The cockpit was arranged as a two seater with the Instructor and Pupil sat side by side, totally enclosed with a sliding roof which can be jettisoned in an emergency. All main controls were duplicated to ideally suit the Trainer role. In 1953 the Provost Mk 1 started to replace the Prentice in the RAF's trainer role and continued in service for eighteen years until it to was replaced by the Jet Provost. The aircraft is designated as a two seat trainer monoplane, powered by a 550hp Alvis Leonides 126 nine cylinder radial engine, with a maximum speed of 200mph and a ceiling limit of 22,500 feet.
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